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Makar Sankranti Essay –
#ESSAY – 1
Kite flying day is my favourite festival. It is also known as Makarsankranti or Uttarayan. It falls on 14th January every year. The sun moves towards North direction from this day. It is the festival of Kites. We buy colourful kites & strong threads. Kite is made of light bamboo sticks and thin papers. The string is coated with a special glass powder and rice paste.
On the day of Uttarayan, people fly kites. It looks very nice and pleasant when kites of variocoloursors fly in the sky. There is a competition between kite fliers. They try to cut one another kites. Chikki is special sweet for Uttarayan. It is made Of Sesame seeds and pea nuts. People greet each other Happy Sankranti on this day.Makar Sankranti is a harvest festival. It is celebrated to mark the arrival of spring season. It is a day of joy for everyone. I like Uttarayan very much.
Facts About Makar Sankranti
- It is the only festival that falls on the same day every year that is 14th of January.
- In many parts of the country, Makar Sankranti marks the time of pilgrimages. In Uttar Pradesh it is the beginning of Kumbh Mela whereas in Kerala it is the end of Shabrimala.
- As Makar Sankranti is one of the oldest solstice festivals and falls on the equinox, day and night on this day are believed to be equally long.
- Over ages, the date of Makar Sankranti has changed. A 1000 years ago, this festival was celebrated on 31st of December.
- Makar Sankranti is also very popular in Nepal. As per Bikram Samwat (Nepali calendar), it is celebrated on 1st Magh and marks the end of Poush – the ill-omened month.
- Makar Sankranti denotes the transition of sun from the zodiac Sagittarius to Capricorn.
#Essay – 2
The colourful kite-flying festival of Makar Sankranti or Uttarayan, which falls on January 14 each year, marks the end of a long winter and the return of the sun to the northern hemisphere. Hence the name Uttarayan.
According to Hindu astronomy, it is on this holiest day in the Hindu calendar, that the sun enters the zodiac of Makara or Capricorn, heralding the northern journey of the sun. The day is also of special significance, because on this day, the day and night are of equal hours.
Celebrated since time immemorial, among Hindus all over India, the day finds a mention even in the epic Mahabharata. We are told that the warrior hero Bhishma Pitamah, even on being fatally wounded and lying on a bed of arrows, lingered on till Uttarayan set in, to breathe his last.
It is believed that the person who dies on his auspicious day escapes the cycle of birth and rebirth and that the soul mingles with the almighty.
Makar Sankranti heralds the arrival of spring, the season of fruitfulness and plenty. And nothing signifies this better than the soft seeds of til or sesame. Across India, housewives prepare sweetmeats made from til – whether it is a basic mixture of til and jaggery, or laddus, or the famous til-poli of Maharashtra. In the southern part of India, the day is celebrated as Pongal, where a fullsome meal of lentils and rice liberally dashed with ghee is offered to gods, and then to family members.
In the northern states, like Punjab, the festival is celebrated as Lohri, where the end of a bitter winter is marked with the burning of huge bonfires liberally fed with handfuls of til sweets, rice and sugarcane. In Uttar Pradesh, the festival is called Khichedi and a typical rice and lentil preparation (called Khichdi), with the mandatory dash of ghee, is offered not just to the Gods, but is also distributed among the poor.
Interestingly, this is a time of celebration for Muslims too. Just out of the month-long fasts of Ramzan, Muslims celebrate the festival of Id just a few days prior to Makar Sankranti. Prayers and hectic preparation of food and the famous seviyan, or vermicelli pudding cooked in milk mark the day which is a time to eat the best and wear the brightest. Its a time of plenty, and a time to give, especially to those who are needy.
The most colourful celebration of Makar Sankranti can be seen in the western states of Gujarat, Maharashtra and Rajasthan. Colourful kites dot the skies as each one attempts to outdo the other. As the sun sets, children and adults desperate to extend the day, add floating oil lanterns to the tails of their kites – a sight that brings to life the true meaning of the day: a return to light, to warmth, to the life-giving sun.
A famous Sanskrit Shloka that expresses it best reads:
Asato maa sadgamaya Tamaso maa jyotirgamaya Mrityoormaa amritam gamaya
Lead me, O Lord, from untruth to Truth from darkness to Light and from death to Immortality.
#Essay – Makar Sankranti Essay in Hindi
मकर संक्रांति हिंदू धर्म का प्रमुख त्यौहार है। यह पर्व पूरे भारत में किसी न किसी रूप में मनाया जाता है। पौष मास में जब सूर्य मकर राशि पर आता है तब इस संक्रांति को मनाया जाता है।
यह त्यौहार अधिकतर जनवरी माह की चौदह तारीख को मनाया जाता है। कभी-कभी यह त्यौहार बारह, तेरह या पंद्रह को भी हो सकता है, यह इस बात पर निर्भर करता है कि सूर्य कब धनु राशि को छोड़ मकर राशि में प्रवेश करता है। इस दिन से सूर्य की उत्तरायण गति आरंभ होती है और इसी कारण इसको उत्तरायणी भी कहते हैं।
मकर संक्रांति से कई पौराणिक कथाएं जुड़ी हुई हैं।
कहा जाता है कि इस दिन भगवान सूर्य अपने पुत्र शनि से मिलने स्वयं उसके घर जाया करते हैं। शनिदेव चूंकि मकर राशि के स्वामी हैं, अत: इस दिन को मकर संक्रांति के नाम से जाना जाता है।
मकर संक्रांति के दिन ही गंगाजी भागीरथ के पीछे-पीछे चलकर कपिल मुनि के आश्रम से होकर सागर में जा उनसे मिली थीं। यह भी कहा जाता है कि गंगा को धरती पर लाने वाले महाराज भगीरथ ने अपने पूर्वजों के लिए इस दिन तर्पण किया था। उनका तर्पण स्वीकार करने के बाद इस दिन गंगा समुद्र में जाकर मिल गई थी। इसलिए मकर संक्रांति पर गंगा सागर में मेला लगता है।
महाभारत काल के महान योद्धा भीष्म पितामह ने भी अपनी देह त्यागने के लिए मकर संक्रांति का ही चयन किया था।
इस त्यौहार को अलग-अलग प्रांतों में अलग-अलग नाम से मनाया जाता है। मकर संक्रांति को तमिलनाडु में पोंगल के रूप में तो आंध्रप्रदेश, कर्नाटक व केरला में यह पर्व केवल संक्रान्ति के नाम से जाना जाता है।
इस दिन भगवान विष्णु ने असुरों का अंत कर युद्ध समाप्ति की घोषणा की थी व सभी असुरों के सिरों को मंदार पर्वत में दबा दिया था। इस प्रकार यह दिन बुराइयों और नकारात्मकता को खत्म करने का दिन भी माना जाता है।
यशोदा जी ने जब कृष्ण जन्म के लिए व्रत किया था तब सूर्य देवता उत्तरायण काल में पदार्पण कर रहे थे और उस दिन मकर संक्रांति थी। कहा जाता है तभी से मकर संक्रांति व्रत का प्रचलन हुआ।
Makar Sankranti is a harvest festival celebrated in India, Nepal and parts of Bangladesh in various cultural forms. It is one of the most auspicious days for Hindus all over India and in other countries. It is celebrated with pomp and devotion in almost all the states of India in various forms. There are many other harvest festivals called by different names in different parts of India. Makar Sankranti is a festival of the harvest season when the Sun enters the Tropic of Capricorn or ‘Makar’. It usually coincides with 14th or 15th of January every year corresponding to the month of ‘Magh’ according to the Hindu solar calendar.
Significance The day signifies the beginning of the summer and the harvest season. It also signifies the northward journey of Sun which is called ‘Uttarayan’. People discard old things for new ones, forget old enmities and pray to god and offer food to their ancestors with the start of the harvesting season and end of the winter months. People attend holy fairs like the ‘Kumbh Mela’ in Prayag and the ‘Gangasagar Mela’ at the junction of River Ganges and the Bay of Bengal and take a dip in the holy waters to wash off their sins.
Celebration & Rituals in Various Parts ‘Makar Sankranti’ celebrations take on different names and hues in different region of India.
Maharastra – ‘Makar Sankranti’ is celebrated for three consecutive days -‘Bhogi’, ‘Sankrant’ and ‘Kinkrant’ in honor of ‘Goddess Sankranti’ who killed ‘Sankrasur Rakhsasa’ or Demon on this day. Married women celebrate ‘Haldi-Kumkum’ while the men and boys fly kites. People distribute ’til-gul laddoos’ made from jaggery and sesame seeds among themselves.
Odisha – According to the Puranas, ‘Lord Surya’ got over his anger with his son ‘Shani’, the master of ‘Makar Rashi’, and paid him a visit on this day. It is also believed that ‘Lord Vishnu’ killed all the ‘Asuras’ on this day and buried their heads under the ‘Mandar Parvata’ or mountain. All communities celebrate ‘Makar Sankranti’ by offering fresh fruits to ‘Lord Surya’. ‘Uttarayana Jatra’ and ‘Uttarayan Vandapana’ of ‘Lord Jagannath’ are also celebrated at the ‘Puri Temple’.
Andhra Pradesh and Telangana – ‘Makara Sankranti’ is celebrated over four consecutive days in this region. The people light bonfires with old wooden furniture during the first day of ‘Bhoghi’ and distribute sweets. On ‘Makara Sankranti’ day people put on new clothes and offer prayers to the almighty and food to their ancestors. Women draw beautiful patterns on the ground with the help of colored powder. On ‘Kanuma’ day, food is shared with the livestock, birds and fish. Farmers pay their homage to nature’s elements and offer gifts to gods and goddesses on ‘Mukkanuma’. People participate in ox and bullock racing, cock fighting and kite flying.
Bihar and Jharkhand – ‘Makar Sankranti’ is celebrated on the 14th and the 15th of January in this part. On 14th January, people have ‘chura’, ‘gur’, milk, curd, vegetables and sweets made from sesame seeds. Some people also enjoy flying kites. On15th January, people perform worship and enjoy a dish of ‘dahi-chura’ followed by ‘laddoos’ made from sesame seeds. A special ‘khichdi’ accompanied with ‘ghee’, ‘papad’, ‘chokha’ and ‘achaar’ is served to the people in the evening.
Delhi and Haryana – The people in these places celebrate the ‘Sakraat’ or ‘Sankranti’ festival with ‘halwa’, ‘kheer’ and ‘ghee’ while men visit their sisters’ homes with gifts. The women sing folk songs giving away gifts known as ‘Manana’ to their in-laws.
Karnataka – The festival is called ‘Suggi’ here. Girls wear new clothes and exchange plates containing a mixture of white sesame seeds, dried coconut, groundnuts and jaggery with other families. Women also create beautiful designs with multi-colored powder on the ground. The cattle are decorated and taken out in processions called ‘Kichchu Haayisuvudu’.
Himachal Pradesh – During the festival known as ‘Magha Saaji’ in this region, people get up early in the morning, have a bath at the springs and visit their neighbors. They gather at temples to pray and enjoy ‘khichdi’ with ‘chach’ and ‘ghee’. During the evening people participate in folk dance known as ‘Naati’ accompanied by singing.
Kerala – People attend the ‘Makaravilakku’ celebrations at the pilgrimage spot of ‘Sabarimala’ and see the star of ‘Makara Jyoti’ and get the blessings of ‘Lord Ayyappan’.
Uttarakhand – During ‘Makar Sankranti’ people have a bath in holy rivers, attend fairs, and distribute ‘khichdi’. Children wear necklaces of beads of various forms which have been designed out of ‘ghee’ and flour’ sweetened with ‘gur’ and sing songs early in the morning to welcome back the migratory birds during ‘Kale Kauva’ or ‘Ghunghutia’ celebrations.
Punjab -In this region the festival is known as ‘Maghi Sangrand’ in which the people have an early bath and light sesame oil lamps to drive away evil, wash away sins and bring prosperity. They participate in their famous ‘bhangra’ dances and enjoy having ‘khichdi’ jiggery and ‘kheer. The people light big bonfires in the evenings and sing and dance around it.
Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh – The people of these states celebrate ‘Makar Sanranti’ by having local delicacies like ‘pheerni’ ‘kheer’, ‘pakodi’, ‘laddoo’ and other such stuff. Married women exchange gifts while others give gifts, fruits, ‘khichdi’ and such things in charity. People fill the skies with kites and try to bring down the kites of others.
West Bengal – The people of this state celebrate ‘Makar Sankranti’ as ‘Poush Sankranti’ with sweets known as ‘pitha’ and worship ‘Godess Lakshmi’ on this day. People living in the hills of Darjeeling call this festival ‘Magey Sanrati’ and worship ‘Lord Shiva’. People from all parts of the country gather at the ‘Ganga Sagar Mela’ to take a dip and pray. Other Similar Festivals in India The harvest season is the time when many other similar festivals are held in India. They are: –
Thai Pongal – ‘Thai Pongal’ is the harvest festival of Tamil Nadu. It is celebrated for four days. On ‘Bhogi Mantalu’ day, homage is paid to ‘Lord Indra’ for bountiful rains. Fresh rice boiled in milk in earthen pots is offered to the ‘Lord Surya’ on the second day while on the third day of ‘Mattu Pongal’ the cattle are adorned with small bells, beads and garlands in honor of ‘Basava’ the bull of ‘Lord Shiva’. On the fourth day of ‘Kannum Pongal’ all the women of the family gather in the courtyard to perform various rituals.
Uttarayan – In Gujrat the harvest festival is called ‘Uttarayan’ and is celebrated on 14th of January and ‘Vasi Uttarayan’ on the 15th of January. Kite flying is the main source of entertainment during these two days while people enjoy having ‘chikkis’ made from jaggery, sesame seeds and peanuts and ‘undhiyu’ made from a mixture of spices and roasted vegetables.
Lohri – ‘Lohri’ is celebrated in the Punjab on 13th of January, a day before the ‘Maghi Sangrand’ festival. The winter solstice and the harvest season is commemorated with bonfires and children go from door to door collecting ‘lohri’ which consists of ’til’ or sesame seeds, ‘gur’ or jaggery, ‘moongphali’ or peanuts and ‘phuliya’ or popcorn and other food items which are distributed among the participants and thrown into the bonfire.
Magh or Bhogali Bihu – ‘Bihu’ harvest festival in Assam is confined to one week starting from the 29th day of the ‘Pooh’ month which is the same as 13th of January. The festival features bonfires and people feast on rice cakes called ‘Shunga Pitha’. ‘Til Pitha’ and coconut sweets called ‘Laru’. Games such as ‘tekeli bhonga’ or pot breaking and buffalo fighting can also be seen during the festivities.
Vaishakhi – Also known as ‘Baisakhi’ this is the harvest festival celebrated in Punjab on either the 13th or 14th of April as the start of the New Year and corresponds to the spring equinox. The farmers in Punjab spend the day in thanksgiving ceremonies and pay their tributes to the gods for giving them a bountiful harvest.
Onam – This festival is celebrated in honor of the annual visit of Asura Mahavali from ‘Patala Loka’ who is revered by all Malayalees as the greatest king. Each of the ten days has a different significance. Processions depicting the culture of Kerala are taken out and Traditional dance are staged for the people to see. Boat racing is one of the most spectacular sports that occur during this festival.